We innovate across disciplines and industries.


CaliBaja Center for Resilient Materials & Systems researchers develop advanced technologies for aerospace, energy, biomedical, environmental, defense and advanced manufacturing applications including advanced materials for jet engines, next-generation nuclear reactors, and biomedical devices. We are world leaders in the following:


Materials Design and Computation / Manufacturing and Integration / Synthesis and Fabrication / Characterization and Diagnosis / Talent Development / Economic Evaluation



Understanding how extreme environments affect the physical and chemical processes that occur in materials can open the door to the design of entirely new classes of materials and devices with greatly enhanced performance. At the same time, advances in characterization and computational tools can provide an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate these key mechanisms.


Our work allows atomic and molecular structures to be manipulated in a predictable manner to create new technologies that have extraordinary tolerance and can function within an extreme environment without degradation.


In addition, we develop materials and device manufacturing technologies that enable production of materials and devices with novel structures and also reduce technology costs and time of deployment.



Boosting the efficiency of fossil fuel power plants from the current level of 35 percent to 60 percent, for example, requires raising operating temperatures by nearly 50 percent and essentially doubling the operating pressures. These operating conditions require new materials that can reliably withstand the extreme heat, pressure, and highly corrosive environments of a power plant for long periods of time. For fission nuclear reactors the effect of irradiation damage must be added to the extreme conditions.



Center researchers are developing innovative composite biomaterials for new biomedical devices and systems in which the biomolecules are placed out of their normal physiological environment and connected with specific inorganic materials to create new sensors, actuators, or energy sources.



Center researchers connect experimental and computational efforts in the design, synthesis / processing, and characterization of materials and devices in extreme conditions. This work is informed by our ab initio, molecular dynamics, and computational thermodynamics efforts in a seamless manner, connecting materials processing and physical behavior to theoretical models.



We perform materials and device characterization at a variety of conditions (i.e., high- strain rates and elevated temperatures). One area of focus is high-temperature X-ray diffraction and calorimetry for development of materials phase diagrams and materials stability with respect to oxidation (and their validation to computational thermodynamics principles); quantification of the microstructure and defects of the materials using atom probe and advanced microscopy techniques and how this relates to mechanical behavior; and novel multiscale and elevated temperature measurements of physical behavior that can include real-time compression testing under static and dynamic pressures, elastic moduli and quality factors using dynamic resonance techniques, creep deformation, and magnetooptical material response.



Journal Publications


  • V.J. Huerta, P. Fernández, V. Gómez, O.A. Graeve, and M. Herrera, "Defect-related Luminescence Properties of Hydroxyapatite Nanobelts," Applied Materials Today, 21, 100822 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.apmt.2020.100822

  • R.A. Márquez-Montes, V.H. Collins-Martínez, I. Pérez-Reyes, D. Chávez-Flores, O.A. Graeve, and V.H. Ramos-Sánchez, "Electrochemical Engineering Assessment of a Novel 3D-printed Filter-press Electrochemical Reactor for Multipurpose Laboratory Applications," ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 8 [9] 3896-3905 (2020). doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b07368

  • M. Lockett, V. Sarmiento, M. Balingit, M.T. Oropeza-Guzmán, and O. Vázquez-Mena, “Direct Chemical Conversion of Continuous CVD Graphene/Graphite Films to Graphene Oxide Without Exfoliation,” Carbon, 158, 202-209 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2019.10.076

  • N. Reguera-Rouzaud, N. Díaz-Viloria, L. Sánchez-Velasco, A.L. Flores-Morales, A. Parés-Sierra, O. Aburto-Oropeza, and A. Munguía-Vega, "Yellow Snapper (Lutjanus argentiventris) Connectivity in the Southern Gulf of California," Marine Biodiversity, 50, 54 (2020). doi: 10.1007/s12526-020-01070-y

  • A. Giron-Nava, S.B. Munch, B. Stephan, A.F. Johnson, E. Deyle, J.C. Chase, E. Saberski, G.M. Pao, O. Aburto-Oropeza, and G. Sugihara, "Circularity in Fisheries Data Weakens Real World Prediction," Scientific Reports, 10, 6977 (2020). doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63773-3

  • T. Rowell, G.L. D’spain, O. Aburto-Oropeza, and B.E. Erisman, "Drivers of Male Sound Production and Effective Communication Distances At Fish Spawning Aggregation Sites," ICES Journal of Marine Science, 77, 730-745 (2020). doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsz236

  • M. Loredo-Mendoza, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, M. Bustamante-Pozo, M. Ayala, V. Navarrete, A. Garate-Carrillo, B. Ito, G. Ceballos, J. Omens, and F. Villareal, “The Role for Inflammation in Driving Structural and Functional Changes in a pre-HFpEF Rat Model,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, 245, 748-757 (2020). doi: 10.1177/1535370220912699

  • A. Garate-Carrillo, J. Gonzalez, G. Ceballos, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, and F. Villareal, “Sex Related Differences in the Pathogenesis of Organ Fibrosis,” Translational Research, 222, 41-55 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2020.03.008

  • S. Dugar, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, A. Moreno-Ulloa, G. Ceballos, F. Villareal, and G. Schreiner, “11-β-hydroxysterols as Possible Endogenous Stimulators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis as inferred from Epicatechin Molecular Mimicry,” Pharmaceutical Research, 151, 104540 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104540

  • P. Leon-Flores, N. Najera, E. Perez, B. Pardo, F. Jimenez, D. Diaz, F. Villareal, I. Hidalgo, G. Ceballos, and E. Meaney, “Effects of Cacao By-Products and a  Modest Weight Loss Intervention on the Concentration of Serum Triglycerides in Overweight Subjects: Proof of Concept,” Journal of Medicinal Food, 23, 745-749 (2020). doi: 10.1089/jmf.2019.0201

  • I. Hidalgo, N. Najera, E. Meaney, J. Perez-Duran, Y. Valdespino-Vazquez, F. Villareal, and G. Ceballos, “Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on the Time Course of the Expression of Perilipins in a Diet-induced Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 77, 108296 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108296

  • F. Sánchez-Alejandro, M.C. Baratto, R. Basosi, O. Graeve, and R. Vazquez-Duhalt, "Addition of New Catalytic Sites on the Surface of Versatile Peroxidase for Enhancement of Lret Catalysis," Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 131, 109429 (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2019.109429

  • V. Sarmiento, M.T. Oropeza-Guzman, M. Lockett, W. Chen, S. Ahn, J. Wang, and O. Vazquez-Mena, “Electrochemical Functionalization Strategy for Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene on Silicon Substrates: Grafting, Electronic Properties and Biosensing,” Nanotechnology, 30, 475703 (2019). doi: 10.1088/1361-6528/ab3ca0

  • G. Phillips, G. D'spain, C. López-Sagástegui, D. Guevara, M.A. Cisneros-Mata, D. Rimington, D. Price, and O. Aburto-Oropeza, "Sound Production of the Critically Endangered Totoaba (Totoaba Macdonaldi): Laying the Foundation for Conservation of This Species Through Passive Acoustic Monitoring," The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146, 2855-2855 (2019). doi: 10.1121/1.5136906

  • E. Ezcurra, E. Barrios, P. Ezcurra, A. Ezcurra, S. Vanderplank, O. Vidal, L. Villanueva-Almanza, and O. Aburto-Oropeza, "A Natural Experiment Reveals the Impact of Hydroelectric Dams on the Estuaries of Tropical Rivers," Science Advances, 5, EAAU9875 (2019). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau9875

  • T. Rowell, O. Aburto‐oropeza, J.J. Cota‐nieto, M. Steele, and B. Erisman, "Reproductive Behaviour and Concurrent Sound Production of Gulf Grouper Mycteroperca Jordani (Epinephelidae) at a Spawning Aggregation Site," Journal of Fish Biology, 94, 277-296 (2019). doi: 10.1111/jfb.13888

  • A. Giron‐nava, A.F. Johnson, A.M. Cisneros‐montemayor, and O. Aburto‐oropeza, "Managing at Maximum Sustainable Yield Does Not Ensure Economic Well‐being for Artisanal Fishers," Fish and Fisheries, 20, 214-223 (2019). doi: 10.1111/faf.12332

  • L.Munguia, I. Hidalgo, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, A. Ortiz, E. Meaney, F. Villarreal, G. Ceballos, and N. Najera, “High Flavonoid Cocoa Supplement Ameliorates Plasma Oxidative Stress and inflammation Levels While Improving Mobility and Quality of Life in Older Subjects: a Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial,” The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 74, 1620-27 (2019). doi: 10.1093/gerona/glz107

  • J. Montes-Rivera, M. Arellano-Mendoza, N. Najera, L. Del Valle-Mondragon, F. Villarreal, I. Rubio-Gayosso, J. Perez-Duran, E. Meaney, and G. Ceballos, “Effect of (-)-Epicatechin on the Modulation of Progression Markers of Chronic Renal Damage in a 5/6 Nephrectomy Model,” Heliyon, 5, E01512 (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01512

  • N. Najera, F. Villarreal, and G. Ceballos, “Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Improvement Using Cacao By-products in a Diet-induced Obesity Murine Model,” Journal of Medicinal Food, 22, 567-577 (2019). doi: 10.1089/jmf.2018.0210

  • M. Bello, F. Villarreal, J. Correa-Basurto, D. Mendez-Luna, G. Ceballos, and N. Najera, “Structural and Energetic Basis for Novel Epicatechin Derivatives Acting As Gper Agonists Through the MMGBSA Method,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 189, 176-186, (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.03.006

  • M. Bustamante, A. Garate-Carrillo, B. Ito, R. Garcia, N. Carson, G. Ceballos, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, J. Omens, and F. Villarreal, "Unmasking of Estrogen Dependent Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Aged Female Rats: A Potential Model of Early Stage HFPEF,” The Journal of Physiology, 597, 1805-1817, (2019). doi: 10.1113/JP277479

  • R. Koch, P.C. Metz, O. Jaime, C.I. Vargas-Consuelos, R. Borja-Urby, J.Y. Peter Ko, J.T. Cahill, D. Edwards, V.R. Vasquez, O.A. Graeve, and S.T. Misture, "Nanodomains and Local Structure in Ternary Alkaline-earth Hexaborides," Journal of Applied Crystallography, 51, 1445-1454 (2018). doi: 10.1107/S1600576718012657

  • F.Y. Su, S. Pang, Y.T.T. Ling, P. Shyu, E. Novitskaya, K. Seo, S. Lambert, K. Zarate, O.A. Graeve, I. Jasiuk, and J. Mckittrick, "Deproteinization of Cortical Bone: Effects of Different Treatments," Calcified Tissue international, 103 [5] 554-566 (2018). doi: 10.1007/s00223-018-0453-x

  • E. Novitskaya, S. Díaz-de-la-Torre, T.A. Esquivel-Castro, G.R. Dieguez-Trejo, A. Kritsuk, J.T. Cahill, and O.A. Graeve, "Current Assisted Extrusion of Metallic Alloys: Insight into Microstructure Formation and Mechanical Properties," Materials Science & Engineering A, 717, 62-67 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2018.01.076

  • G. Arellano, O. Jaime, and O.A. Graeve, "Latino Engineering Faculty in the United States," MRS Bulletin, 43 [2] 131-133 (2018). doi:

  • K.M. Schmidt, O. Jaime, J.T. Cahill, D. Edwards, S.T. Misture, O.A. Graeve, and V.R. Vasquez, "Surface Termination Analysis of Stoichiometric Metal Hexaborides: Insights From First-principles and Xps Measurements," Acta Materialia, 144, 187-201 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2017.10.045

  • K. Ulate, T. Alcoverro, R. Arthur, O. Aburto-Oropeza, C. Sánchez, and L. Huato-Soberanis, "Conventional Mpas Are Not As Effective As Community Co-Managed Areas in Conserving Top-down Control in the Gulf of California," Biological Conservation, 228, 100-109 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.09.033

  • A. Munguia-Vega, A.L. Green, A.N. Suarez-Castillo, M.J. Espinosa-Romero, O. Aburto-Oropeza, A.M. Cisneros-Montemayor, G. Cruz-Piñón, G. Danemann, A. Giron-Nava, and O. González-Cuellar, "Ecological Guidelines for Designing Networks of Marine Reserves in the Unique Biophysical Environment of the Gulf of California," Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 28, 749-776 (2018). doi: 10.1007/s11160-018-9529-y

  • M.A. Ojeda-Ruiz, E.A. Marín-Monroy, G. Hinojosa-Arango, A. Flores-Irigollen, J.J. Cota-Nieto, R.A. Cavieses-Núñez, and O. Aburto-Oropeza, "Development of Fisheries in Bahía Magdalena-Almejas: the Need To Explore New Policies and Management Paradigms," Ocean & Coastal Management, 161, 1-10 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.04.014

  • J.J. Cota-Nieto, B. Erisman, O. Aburto-Oropeza, M. Moreno-Báez, G, Hinojosa-Arango, and A.F. Johnson, "Participatory Management in a Small-Scale Coastal Fishery—punta Abreojos, Pacific Coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico," Regional Studies in Marine Science, 18, 68-79 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.rsma.2017.12.014

  • O. Aburto-Oropeza, A. F. Johnson, M. Agha, E. B. Allen, M. F. Allen, J. Arellano-González, D. M. Arenas-Moreno, R. Beas-Luna, S. Butterfield, and G. Caetano, "Harnessing Cross-border Resources To Confront Climate Change," Environmental Science & Policy, 87, 128-132 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2018.01.001

  • Jp. Egerton, Af. Johnson, J. Turner, L. Levay, I. Mascarenas-Osorio, and O. Aburto-Oropeza, "Hydroacoustics As a Tool To Examine the Effects of Marine Protected Areas and Habitat Type on Marine Fish Communities," Scientific Reports, 8, 1-11 (2018). doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18353-3

  • A. L. M. Ahern, J. Gómez-Gutiérrez, O. Aburto-Oropeza,R. J. Saldierna-Martínez, A. F. Johnson, A. E. Harada, A. R. Sánchez-Uvera, B. Erisman, D. I. Castro-Arvizú, and R. Burton, "DNA Sequencing of Fish Eggs and Larvae Reveals High Species Diversity and Seasonal Changes in Spawning Activity in the Southeastern Gulf of California," Marine Ecology Progress Series, 592, 159-179(2018). doi: 10.3354/meps12446

  • J.J. Cota-Nieto, B. Erisman, O. Aburto-Oropeza, M. Moreno-Báez, G. Hinojosa-Arango, and A. F. Johnson, "Participatory Management in a Small-Scale Coastal Fishery—punta Abreojos, Pacific Coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico," Regional Studies in Marine Science,18, 68-79(2018). doi: 10.1016/j.rsma.2017.12.014

  • L. Munguia L, V. Solis, E. Meany, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, F. Villarreal, J. Perez-Duran, I. Rubio-Gayosso, A. Ortiz, G. Ceballos, and N. Najera, “Association of Physical Performance Tests With Frailty Indicators and Oxidative Stress Markers in a Sample of a Community-dwelling Elderly Population,” Biomedical Research , 29, 3344-3350 (2018). doi: 10.4066/biomedicalresearch.29-18-806

  • I. Ramírez-Sanchez, C. Mansour, V. Yanes, M. Hernandez, G. Balcazar, C. Hernandez, L. Mendoza, M. Bustamante, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, "(-)-Epicatechin induced Reversal of Endothelial Cell Aging and Improves Vascular Function: Underlying Mechanisms,” Food and Function, 9, 4802-4813, (2018). doi: 10.1039/c8fo00483h

  • N. Najera, F. Varela, P.Cordero, G. Gutierrez-Iglesias, I. Palma, I. Rubio-Gayosso, F. Meaney, F. Villarreal, and G. Ceballos, “Characterization of the Cytotoxic Effects of the Combination of Cisplatin and the Flavanol (-)-Epicatechin on Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549. An Isobolographic Approach,” Experimental Oncology, 40, 19-23 (2018). doi: 10.31768/2312-8852.2018.40(1):19-23

  • V. Sarmiento, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, A. Moreno-Ulloa, D. Romero-Perez, D. Chavez, M. Ortiz, N. Najera, J. Correa-Basurto, F. Villarreal, and G. Ceballos, “Synthesis of Novel (-)-Epicatechin Derivatives As Potential Endothelial Gper Agonists: Evaluation of Biological Effects,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letterss, 28, 658-663 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.01.025

  • P. Ortiz-Vilchis, M. Pacheco, A. Ulloa-Moreno, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, G. Gutierrez-Salmean, E. Meany, F. Villarreal, and G. Ceballos, "The Cardioprotective Effects of (-)-Epicatechin Are Mediated Through Arginase Activity Within a Murine Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 818, 335-342 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.11.007

  • A. Moreno-Ulloa, A. Miranda-Cervantes, A. Licea-Navarro, E. Beltran-Partida, C. Mansour, L. Donis-Maturano, F. Villarreal, and C. Alvarez-Delgado, “(-)-Epicatechin Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2c12 Myotubes: Involvement of the G-protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER),” European Journal of Pharmacology, 822, 95-107 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.01.014

  • A. Moreno-Ulloa , I. Ramírez-Sanchez, P. Taub, Y. Su, G. Ceballos, S. Dugar, G. Schreiner, B. Brook, T. Ciaraldi, F. Villarreal, and R. Henry, “Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic and initial Safety Analysis of (+)-Epicatechin in Healthy Volunteers and Pre-clinical Models,” Food & Function, 9, 307-319 (2018). doi: 10.1039/c4fo00596a

  • A.S. Alvarez-Suarez, E.A. López-Maldonado, O.A. Graeve, F. Martinez-Pallares, L.E. Gómez-Pineda, M.T. Oropeza-Guzmán, A.L. Iglesias, T. Ng, E. Serena-Gómez, and L.J. Villarreal-Gómez, "Fabrication of Porous Polymeric Structures Using a Simple Sonication Technique for Tissue Engineering," Journal of Polymer Engineering, 37, 1-9 (2017). doi: 10.1515/polyeng-2016-0423

  • L.A. Zavala, P. Fernandez, E. Novitskaya, J.N. Diaz, M. Herrera, and O.A. Graeve, "Interconfigurational Transitions of Yb2+ and Yb3+ Ions in Hydroxyapatite: a Cathodoluminescence Study," Acta Materialia, 135, 35-43 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2017.06.003

  • J.T. Cahill, M. Alberga, J. Bahena, C. Pisano, R. Borja-Urby, V.R. Vasquez, D. Edwards, S.T. Misture, and O.A. Graeve, "Phase Stability of Mixed-Cation Alkaline-Earth Hexaborides," Crystal Growth & Design, 17 [6] 3450-3461 (2017). doi: 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00391

  • I. Ramírez-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez, A. Moreno-Ulloa , G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, "Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on Frontal Cortex Dapc and Dysbindin Levels in Dystrophic Mdx Mice,” Neuroscience Letters, 658, 142-149 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.08.056

  • I. Ramírez-Sanchez, and F. Villarreal, "Dysregulation of Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis Modulators in Adipose Tissue of Obese Children,” International Journal of Obesity, 42, 618-624 (2018). doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.274

  • C.E. Varela, A. Rodriguez, M. Romero-Valdovinos, P. Mendoza-Lorenzo, C. Mansour, G. Ceballos, F. Villarreal, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Browning Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on Adipocytes and White Adipose Tissue,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 811, 48-59 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.05.051

  • L. Valadez-Carmona, C.P. Plazola-Jacinto, M. Hernandez-Ortega, M.D. Hernandez-Navarro, F. Villarreal, H. Necoechea-Mondragón, A. Ortiz-Moreno, and G. Ceballos-Reyes, “Effects of Microwaves, Hot Air and Freeze-drying on the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, Enzyme Activity and Microstructure of Cacao Pod Husks (Theobroma Cacao L.),” innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 41, 378-386 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.04.012

  • E. Beltran-Partida, B. Valdez-Salas, A. Moreno-Ulloa , A. Escamilla, M. Curiel, R. Rosales-Ibanez, F. Villarreal, D. Bastidas, and J. Bastidas, “Improved in Vitro Angiogenic Behavior on Anodized Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 15, 1-21 (2017). doi: 10.1186/s12951-017-0247-8

  • G. Rojas-George, A. Concha-Balderrama, H. Esparza-Ponce, J. Silva, J.T. Elizalde-Galindo, M.P. Cruz, J.J. Gervacio, O.A. Graeve, and G. Herrera, L. Fuentes, A. Reyes-Rojas, “Local Polarization Switching in Ba-ni Co-doped Bifeo3 Thin Films With Low Rhombohedral-Symmetry Distortion,” Journal of Materials Science, 51 [5] 2283-2291 (2016). doi: 10.1007/s10853-015-9530-y

  • G. Gutierrez-Salmean, E. Meany, A. Maisel, M. Lanaspa, R. Johnson, S. Dugar, P. Taub, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, F. Villarreal, G. Schreiner, and G. Ceballos, “A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Study on the Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on the Triglyceride/Hdlc Ratio and Cardiometabolic Profile of Subjects With Hypertriglyceridemia: Unique in Vitro Effects,” International Journal of Cardiology, 223, 500-506 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.158

  • P. Taub, I. Ramírez-Sanchez, A. Moreno-Ulloa , M. Patel, E. Higginbotham, L. Roman, P. Phillips, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, "Stimulatory Effects of Dark Chocolate on Exercise Capacity in Sedentary Older Subjects: Underlying Mechanisms: a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial,” Food & Function, 7, 3686-3693, (2016). doi: 10.1039/c6fo00611f

  • C. Varela, E. Fromentin, M. Roller, F. Villarreal, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Effects of a Natural Extract of Aronia Melanocarpa Berry on Endothelial Cell Nitric Oxide Production,” Journal of Food Biochemistry, 40, 404-410 (2016). doi:

  • I. Ramirez-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez, A. Moreno-Ulloa, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “(-)-Epicatechin induced Recovery of Mitochondria From Simulated Diabetes: Potential Role of Enos,” Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, 13, 201-210 (2016). doi: 10.1177/1479164115620982

  • L.A. Zavala-Sanchez, G.A. Hirata, E. Novitskaya, K. Karandikar, M. Herrera, and O.A. Graeve, "Distribution of Eu2+ and Eu3+ Ions in Hydroxyapatite: a Cathodoluminescence and Raman Study," ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 1 [12] 1306-1313 (2015). doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.5b00378

  • A. Moreno-Ulloa, L. Nogueira, A. Rodriguez, J. Barboza, M. Hogan, G. Ceballos, F. Villarreal, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Recovery of indicators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Oxidative Stress and Aging With (-)-Epiicatechin in Senile Mice,” Journals of Gerontology, 70, 1370-78 (2015). doi: 10.1093/gerona/glu131

  • A. Moreno-Ulloa, D. Mendez-Luna, E. Beltran-Partida, C, Castillo, G. Guevara, I. Ramirez-Sanchez, J. Correa-Basurto, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “The Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on Endothelial Cells involve the G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER),” Pharmacological Research, 100, 309-320 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.08.014

  • C. Barnett, A. Moreno-Ulloa, S. Shiva, I. Ramirez-Sanchez, P. Taub, Y. Su, G. Ceballos, S. Dugar, G. Schreiner, and F. Villarreal, “Pharmacokinetic, Partial Pharmacodynamic and initial Safety Analysis of (-)-Epicatechin in Healthy Volunteers,” Food and Function, 6, 824-33 (2015). doi: 10.1039/c4fo00596a

  • C.I. Vargas-Consuelos, K. Seo, M. Camacho-Lopez, and O.A. Graeve, "Correlation Between Particle Size and Raman Vibrations in Wo3 Powders," Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118 [18] 9531-9537 (2014). doi: 10.1021/jp501095y

  • G. Rojas-George, J.M. Silva, R. Castaneda, D. Lardizabal, O.A. Graeve, A. Reyes, and L. Fuentes, "Modifications in the Rhombohedral Degree of Distortion and Magnetic Properties of Ba-doped BiFeO3 As a Function of Synthesis Methodology," Materials Chemistry and Physics, 146 [1-2] 73-81 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2014.02.044

  • P. Ortiz-Vilchis, G. Yamazaki, I. Rubio-Gayosso, I. Ramirez-Sanchez, C. Calzada, E. Meaney, F. Villarreal, and G. Ceballos, “Co-administration of the Flavanol (-)-Epicatechin With Doxycycline Synergistically Reduces infarct Size in a Model of Ischemia Reperfusion injury By inhibition of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 744, 76-82 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.09.042

  • I. Ramirez-Sanchez, S. De Los Santos, S. Gonzalez-Basurto, P. Canto, P. Mendoza-Lorenzo, C. Palma-Flores, G. Ceballos, F. Villarreal, and R. Coral-Vazquez, “(-)-Epicatechin Improves Mitochondrial Related Protein Levels and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress in Dystrophic Delta Sarcoglycan Null Mouse Striated Muscle,” FEBS Journal, 281, 5567-80 (2014). doi: 10.1111/febs.13098

  • A. Moreno-Ulloa, F. Villarreal, G. Ceballos, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Cell Membrane Mediated (-)-Epicatechin Effects on Upstream Endothelial Cell Signaling: Evidence for a Surface Receptor,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 24, 2749-52 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.04.038

  • K. Yamazaki, P. Ortiz-Vilchis, A. Andreyev, S. Petrosyan, C. De La Fuente, G. Ceballos, F. Villarreal, and A. Murphy, "The Cocoa Flavanol (-)-Epicatechin Exerts Cardioprotective Effects By Protecting Myocardial Bioenergetics,” International Journal of Cardiology, 175, 297-306 (2014). doi: 10.1096/fasebj.26.1_supplement.888.8

  • G. Gutierrez-Salmean, I. Ramírez-Sánchez, F. Villarreal, and G. Ceballos, “Acute Effects of An Oral Supplement of (-)-Epicatechin on Postprandial Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Normal and Overweight Subjects,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 728, 24-30 (2014). doi: 10.1039/c3fo60416k

  • H. Aguilar, E. Fricovsky, S. Ihm, M. Schimke, L. Maya-Ramos, G. Ceballos, W. Dillmann, F. Villarreal, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Role for High Glucose induced Protein O-glcnacylation in Stimulating Cardiac Fibroblast Collagen Synthesis,” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 306, C794-C804. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00251.2013

  • G. Gutiérrez-Salmeán, M. Ortiz-Vilchis, C. Vacaseydel, I. Rubio-Gayosso, E. Meaney, F. Villarreal, I. Ramírez-Sánchez, and G. Ceballos, “Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on Postprandial Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism,” Food and Function, 5, 521-527 (2014). doi: 10.1039/c3fo60416k

  • G. Gutierrez-Salmean, T. Ciaraldi, L. Nogueira, P. Taub, M. Hogan, R. Henry, E. Meany, F. Villarreal, G. Ceballos, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Effects of (-)-Epicatechin on Molecular Modulators of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Differentiation,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 25, 91-94 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.007

  • I. Ramirez-Sanchez, P. Taub, L. Nogueira, T. Ciaraldi, M. Hogan, A. Maisel, R. Henry, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Modulation of Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress Regulatory Systems By (-)-Epicatechin in Heart Failure and Type 2 Diabetes,” International Journal of Cardiology, 168, 3982-3990 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.06.089

  • O.A. Graeve, H. Fathi, J.P. Kelly, M.S. Saterlie, K. Sinha, G. Rojas-George, R. Kanakala, D.R. Brown, and E.A. Lopez, "Reverse Micelle Synthesis of Oxide Nanopowders: Mechanisms of Precipitate Formation and Agglomeration Effects," Journal of Colloid & Interface Science, 407, 302-309 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.07.003

  • O.A. Graeve, M.S. Saterlie, R. Kanakala, S. Diaz De La Torre, and J.C. Farmer, "The Kinetics of Devitrification of Amorphous Alloys: the Time-temperature-crystallinity Diagram Describing the Spark Plasma Sintering of Fe-based Metallic Glasses,” Scripta Materialia, 69 [2] 143-148 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2013.02.019

  • A. Moreno-Ulloa, A. Cid, I. Rubio-Gayosso, G. Ceballos, F. Villarreal, and I. Ramírez-Sánchez, "Effects of (-)-Epicatechin and Derivatives on Nitric Oxide Mediated Mitochondrial Proteins and Function,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 23, 4441-4446 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.05.079

  • P. Taub, I. Ramirez-Sanchez, T. Ciaraldi, S. Gonzalez-Basurto, R. Coral-Vazquez, G, Perkins, M. Hogan, A. Maisel, R. Henry, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Severe Perturbations in Skeletal Muscle Sarcomere Structure of Heart Failure and Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Restorative Effects of (-)-Epicatechin-rich Cocoa,” Clinical Science, 125, 383-89 (2013). doi: 10.1042/CS20130023

  • I. Ramírez-Sánchez, L. Maya, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “(-)-Epicatechin induced Calcium independent Enos Activation: Roles of HSP90 and AKT,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 370, 141-150 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s11010-012-1405-9

  • I. Ramirez-Sanchez, L. Nogueira, A. Moreno, A. Murphy, P. Taub, G. Perkins, G. Ceballos, M. Hogan, M. Malek, and F. Villarreal, “Stimulatory Effects of the Flavanol (-)-Epicatechin on Cardiac Angiogenesis: Additive Effects With Exercise,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 60, 429-38 (2012). doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e318269ae0d

  • P. Taub, I. Ramirez-Sanchez, T. Ciaraldi, G. Perkins, A. Murphy, R. Naviaux, M. Hogan, A. Maisel, R. Henry, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Alterations in Skeletal Muscle indicators of Mitochondrial Structure and Biogenesis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Heart Failure: Effects of Epicatechin Rich Cocoa,” Clinical and Translational Science, 5, 43-47 (2012). doi: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00357.x

  • R. Kanakala, R. Escudero, G. Rojas-George, M. Ramisetty, and O.A. Graeve, "Mechanisms of Combustion Synthesis and Magnetic Response of High-surface-area Hexaboride Compounds," ACS Applied Materials & interfaces, 3 [4] 1093-1100 (2011). doi: 10.1021/am1012276

  • G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “The Beneficial Vascular Effects of Cacao Flavanols: Having Your Cake and Eating It Too,” Journal of Applied Physics, 11, 1544-1545, (2011). doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01242.2011

  • I. Ramirez-Sanchez, L. Maya, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “(-)-Epicatechin induces Calcium and Translocation independent Enos Activation in Arterial Endothelial Cells,” American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 300, C880-887 (2011). doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00406.2010

  • L. Nogueira, I. Ramirez-Sanchez, G. Perkins, A. Murphy, P. Taub, G. Ceballos, F. Villarreal, M. Hogan, and M. Malek, “(-)-Epicatechin Enhances Fatigue Resistance and Oxidative Capacity in Mouse Muscle,” The Journal of Physiology, 589, 4615-4631 (2011). doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.209924

  • M.O. Griffin, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Tetracycline Compounds With Non-antimicrobial Organ Protective Properties: Possible Mechanisms of Action,” Pharmacological Research, 63, 102-7 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2010.10.004

  • I. Ramírez-Sánchez, L. Maya, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “(−)-Epicatechin Activation of Endothelial Cell Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase, Nitric Oxide, and Related Signaling Pathways,” American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 300, C880-887 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2010.10.004

  • M. Griffin, E. Fricovsky, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Tetracyclines: a Pleitropic Family of Compounds With Promising Therapeutic Properties,” American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 299, C539-548 (2010). doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00047.2010

  • I. Ramírez-Sánchez, L. Maya, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Epicatechin Activation of Endothelial Cell Enos, No and Related Signaling Pathways,” Hypertension, 55,1398-1405 (2010). doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.147892

  • I. Ramírez-Sánchez, L. Maya, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Fluorescent Detection of (-)-Epicatechin in Microsamples From Cacao Seeds and Cocoa Products: Comparison With Folin-cciocalteu Method,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 23, 790-793 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2010.03.014

  • K. Yamazaki, P. Rajendran, M. Barraza, M. Rivas, A. Zambon, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Cardioprotective Effects of (-)-Epicatechin in a Model of Permanent Coronary Occlusion-induced Myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 55, 2869-2876 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.01.055

  • K. Sinha, B. Pearson, S.R. Casolco, J.E. Garay, and O.A. Graeve, "Synthesis and Consolidation of BaAl2Si2O8:Eu. Development of An integrated Process for Luminescent Smart Ceramic Materials," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 92 [11] 2504-2511 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2009.03242.x

  • K. Go, D. Romero-Perez, M. Barraza, M. Cruz, B. Cortez-Gomez, M. Rivas, G. Ceballos, and F. Villarreal, “Short- and Long-term Effects of (−)-Epicatechin on Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion injury,” American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 295 [2] H761-H767 (2008). doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00413.2008